The slavery in Romania
The daughters and sons born of a mother slave were slaves by law and belonged to the master of the slave.
Slaves could not marry without the master's consent.
If the contracting parties belonged to different masters, they could raise their daughters and sons, but when they reached the working age they were divided equally between the two masters.
The boyars had their favorite slaves who warmed their feet to warm them and to sleep peacefully. After that formula of convenience, that euphemism of "warming the feet", the sexual privileges of the boyars over the slaves were hidden.
It used to happen that the boyar father slept with the slave and the son of the boyar with the daughter of the slave incurring incest relations since they did not consider those slaves as sisters. This fact shows us to what extent the dehumanization came on slaves and women in particular.
The most beautiful female slaves were often sent to massage the feet of important visitors (see note 43).
Deportation to the Portuguese colonies
The specific anti-Roma legislation in Portugal, as in other countries of Central and Western Europe, punished the forms of expression of the Romani culture as offenses: nomadism, group displacement - even if they were merely family groups -, the practice of divination and witchcraft, to speak calaõ (Romani dialect spoken in Portugal), to use traditional Romani clothing... in short to be Rroma and Rromnǎ.
The degredo, the exile or deportation to the colonies, as punishment for the Romani population appears in 1538.
The first official record of the arrival of the Roma to Brazil dates from 1574 and consists of a decree of deportation of João Torres and his wife Angelina to the Brazilian land for five years (Lopes Da Costa, 2005).
In the alvará (law) of October 24, 1647, it is established as a specific punishment for Romani women their exile to Angola and Cabo Verde for life without being able to take their daughters or their children with them.
Another alvará of November 10, 1708 determines the exile to Brazil for Romani women while men were sent to the galleys.
The destiny of the Romani women in the colonies was to "live gathered, taking care of the jobs that the rest did," that is, servitude in the stately homes.
In exile they did not get rid of the anti-Roma laws. During this period, Luanda City Council launched a series of orders prohibiting, for example, the use by Romani women of black shawls and other clothes considered indecent for the streets of Luanda.
We have offered some examples of how Portuguese anti-Roma legislation had a differential treatment for Romani women but, unfortunately, we do not know what happened to these poor women exiled to a hostile land without their daughters or their children, knowing that their husbands were imprisoned or fulfilling penalties of galleys. In this sense, it is necessary to promote a clear policy of support for research that allows us to access knowledge of that reality that is still denied to us.
The attempted extermination of the Roma in 1749: the Great Round-Up in Spain
The attempted extermination of 1749, also known as the Great Round-Up or general imprisonment of the Roma, is the oldest known attempt at genocide. It lasted until 1763, the year in which the general pardon was decreed. Its consequences persist to this day, since during those years family structures were destroyed and, therefore, the traditional channels of cultural transference were broken. Thus, for example, the deterioration of the Romanó accelerated until it lost its ability to communicate.
And while that pernicious "race" was extinguished, they would take advantage of whatever they could: men would serve as slave labor to rebuild the Spanish Navy in the Naval Stations (naval shipyard and naval base) and women would serve in "women's work" in hospices and houses of mercy (Martínez Martínez, 2014).
More than 600 Romani women with their children (girls and boys) under 7 years of age were imprisoned in the Real Casa de Misericordia of Zaragoza (which occupied the space on which today stands the Pignatelli Palace, seat of the Autonomous Government of Aragon). This infamous place was the largest prison, the place where a greater number of Romani women suffered this condemnation. But there were other places like the Hospital del Rey in Valencia or the Antiguo Convento de los Agustinos Descalzos in Barcelona where our ancestors were imprisoned and subjected to forced labor for the mere fact of being Romani women.
The day of the Romani Resistance (May 16, 1944)
There was a previous attempt to liquidate the Romani families's camp on May 16, 1944 and we remember it as the Day of Resistance since a rebellion of both Romani men and women prevented the Nazis from carrying out their extermination plan. That day Romani women had a special role.
They armed themselves with sticks, stones, tools and raised barricades that prevented the SS from liquidating that unfortunate day the gypsy camp.
Forced sterilization of Romani Women
One of the most serious violations of human rights against women is the practice of coercive sterilization. This practice has been directed specifically towards Romani women in the following countries of Europe:
Czech Republic: in the former Czechoslovakia, a Public Order on Sterilization, in force since January 1972, allowed public authorities to take programmatic measures to encourage the sterilization of Roma women and women with disabilities located in mental institutions to control their birth rate. Hundreds of Roma and disabled women were sterilized under that decree.
In 1979, Czechoslovakia also initiated a program of financial incentives for Roma women to undergo sterilizations motivated by the need to "control the highly sick Roma population through family planning and contraception".
There have also been reports of forced or uninformed sterilization of Romani women in Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria.
Sources of material
 Djuvara, N (1995) Între Orient şi Occident. Ţările române la începutul epocii moderne. Bucarest: Humanitas
 Marushiakova, E & Popov, V (2009) Gypsy Slavery in Wallachia and Moldavia. En Kamusella, T & Jaskulowski, K (eds) Nationalisms Today. Oxford: Peter Lang, 89-124
 Achim, V (1998) The Roma in Romanian History. Budapest: CEU Press
 Bercovici, K (1928). The story of the Gypsies. London: Johnathan Cape
 Colson, F (1839) De l'etat present et de l'avenir des principautes de Moldavie et de Valachie suivi des traites de la Turquie avec les puissances Europeennes et d'une Carte des pays Roumains. París: A. Pouguin
 Piasere, L (2014) Dora d’Istria y los gitanos rumanos. Revista andaluza de Antropología, 7, 23-43
 Coelho, F A (1892) Os Ciganos de Portugal com um estudo sobre o calão. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional
 Lopes Da Costa, E M (2005) Contributos ciganos para o povoamento do Brasil (séculos xvi-xix), Arquipélago história, 2ª série, IX, 153-182
 Andrade e Silva, J J (1854) Collecção Chronologica da Legislação Portugueza. Lisboa: Imprensa J. J. A. Silva
 Coelho, A (1892) Os ciganos de Portugal com um estudo sobre o calão. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional
 Pantoja, S (2004) Inquisição, degredo e mestiçagem em Angola no século XVIII. Revista lusófona de ciência das religiões, (III) 5/6, 117-136
 Gómez Alfaro, A (1993) La gran redada de gitanos: España, la pri¬sión general de gitanos de 1749 Madrid: Presencia Gitana
 Martínez Martínez, M (2014) Los gitanos y las gitanas de España a mediados del siglo XVIII, El fracaso de un proyecto de "exterminio" (1748-1765). Almería: Universidad de Almería
 Gómez Urdáñez, J L, (2004) La Real Casa de Misericordia de Zaragoza, cárcel de gitanas (1752-1763). En García Fernández, M & Sobaler Seco, M A (coords.), Estudios en Homenaje al profesor Teófanes Egido. Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León.
 Martínez Martínez, M (2015). Nunca Más. Homenaje a las víctimas del proyecto de “exterminio” de la minoría gitana iniciado con la redada de 1749. Almería: Círculo Rojo
 Gómez Urdáñez, J L (2002) El absolutismo regio en España durante la Ilustración. Brocar, 26, 151-176
 Courthiade, M (2017) ¿Cómo llamar al genocidio perpetrado contra los gitanos en la época nazi? O Tchatchipen, 97, 37-42
 Hancock, I (2005) Las cifras del Holocausto Gitano. I Tchatchipen, 85, 33-39
 Hancock, I (2000) Genocidio de los gitanos en el Holocausto. I Tchatchipen, 30, 13-16
 Zentralrat Deutscher Sinti und Roma (1992) Memorial Book. The Gypsies at Auschwitz-Birkenau / Ksiega Pamieci. Cyganie w obozie Koncentracyjnym Auschwitz-Birkenau /Gedenkbuch. Die Sinti und Roma im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau. Munich: De Gruyter Saur
 Keen, E (2014) Right to Remember - A Handbook for Education with Young People on the Roma Genocide. Estrasburgo: Consejo de Europa
 Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses
 Milton, S. (1991). Gypsies and the Holocaust. The History Teacher, 24(4), 375-387
 Ministry of Culture of Sweden (2015) The Dark Unknown History White Paper on Abuses and Rights Violations Against Roma in the 20th Century. Estocolmo: gobierno Sueco
 Las gitanas sinti se diferencian de otras gitanas en algunas características culturales como por ejemplo en el uso de una variante dialectal romaní propia. La mayor parte residen en Alemania pero también hay comunidades sinti en Italia y en Suiza
 Las yenish no son étnicamente romaníes pero a lo largo de la historia han sido tratadas como si lo fueran y han padecido y padecen el antigitanismo
 Grupo étnico no romanó pero tradicionalmente tratado como si fueran gitanas y gitanos y que, por tanto, han padecido y padecen el antigitanismo