Educational Programme

Educational Programme


Dear teachers, this Educational Programme aims to support your work with Roma women at risk of exclusion, low qualifications and/or early school dropout. We offer this guide to help you reflect and share with Roma women from a critical perspective. We hope that it will be of interest to you and that it will benefit Roma women to continue building their citizenship and resistance. We hope that on this occasion, they will find teachers capable of understanding the complex anti-Roma system that is reproduced in formal education and that the guide offers the necessary tools to neutralise it and regain their interest and motivation towards education.

This material was prepared with dedication for Roma women by Roma women's associations, and we hope it will be useful to you. If you have any questions, please contact us through the website


The following is the complete didactic programme that will allow teachers (both in formal adult education centres and in social entities and institutions) to implement the TRAINING COURSE FOR ACCESS TO ADULT EDUCATION FOR ROMA WOMEN.  A training course created by and for adult Roma women, which aims to promote inclusion and the development of transversal and academic skills that allow these women to reincorporate into the formal education system through traditional schools for adults.

This course is one of the main results of the project "ADULT SCHOOLS FOR INCLUSION IN THE DIVERSITY OF ROMA WOMEN" co-financed by the Erasmus+ Programme and which has allowed us to establish intense work networks between social entities of and for Roma women from Romania, Spain, France and Portugal, which have facilitated the exchange of experiences and the implementation of joint projects aimed at the inclusion and empowerment of Roma women, through their own action and initiative.  gitana.

This Educational Programme aims to foster the development of social, civic and intercultural competences, critical thinking, and to fight against the discrimination, segregation and racism suffered by Roma women.

This programme is especially focused on adult Roma women. On the one hand, to their education, which, in accordance with European Union guidelines, indicates the need to acquire key competences as a necessary requirement to achieve, as citizens, a full personal, social and professional development that meets the demands of today's reality.

And on the other hand, towards empowerment and the fight against the oppression and exclusion to which Roma women are subjected. Where they can confront the different axes of oppression to which they are systematically subjected: discrimination, patriarchy, impoverishment, social rejection, lack of job opportunities...

A course aimed at educational and personal empowerment, to encourage the critical analysis of female students in order to understand their context... and their strength to forge a path on their own, without the need for guides or "helpers", from their own autonomy. A path that is based on training and education, on accessing formal education and obtaining qualifications (diverse and varied, far from the stereotypes that are strongly established in our social imaginary and that categorise all Roma women as street vendors, hairdressers, shop assistants, cleaners...).

In order to achieve these ambitious objectives, an innovative and easily replicable teaching programme is proposed here with three learning areas:


This area of the course will seek to develop the literacy, numeracy and digital literacy skills of Roma women learners. Although its content is formal, the learning methods and spaces will be based on non-formal and informal education.


This area will seek to develop the self-confidence, empowerment, study habits and citizenship awareness of Roma adults with early school leaving, low qualifications or qualifications.


Starting from the methodological section, where we show pedagogical strategies for inclusion in the classroom to teachers, showing them the social, economic, family and work needs that Romany women usually have and what processes should be followed to achieve the proposed educational objectives. All this through a flexible and innovative methodology for the training of adult Romany women that encourages the participation of the students while at the same time is compatible with their daily responsibilities.

This material not only shows the teachers of the training course how to structure the contents and give guidelines on how to teach the Didactic Units, but also has specific contents to help teachers in other areas (secondary, vet, traditional adult centres) to favour the inclusion of Roma women in their classrooms.

We hope that through the pages that make up this didactic programme we will help you, the teacher, to get to know better the reality of some of your students and start on a path that will provide them with the necessary tools so that the Roma women who attend your course will be able to break the mechanisms that perpetuate stereotypes, segregation and machismo that project them into a grey and dark future.

But this course also aims and aims to make you, as a Roma woman, realise your capacity and power to change a society made up of different groups and classes that instead of promoting your equality, are based on prejudices and stereotypes that endorse the segregation to which you are subjected on a daily basis. This course is for you to understand that you are not alone and that you are strong enough to make a difference.


European Context


The Roma population is the largest ethnic minority in Europe, estimated around 10-12 million people[1], with the largest presence in Eastern European countries.  The living conditions of a large part of the Roma population are below the poverty line[2]Antigypsyism, social exclusion and rejection by mainstream society and institutions punish and determine their living conditions. The situation of marginalisation and exclusion is still present after centuries of history on the continent. The studies carried out by the European Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) reveal their living conditions are similar to underdevelopment[3].  Poor housing, lack of access to electricity, drinking water, employment, education, training or health, life expectancy, food deprivation and quality of life, highlight the inequalities in Europe with respect to the Roma population.  Historical deprivations that have provoked the disadvantage, inequality, racism and discrimination of an entire population, denying them opportunities for citizenship and making them the most excluded ethnic group in Europe.


It is estimated that half of the Roma population is under 30 years old. This young population lives a particularly vulnerable situation in the European context due to antigypsyism.


Roma women throughout history have been excluded from society, persecuted, imprisoned, exterminated... Today, this situation persists and translates into social exclusion and limitation of equal opportunities. Citizenship cannot be exercised without minimum levels of equality and status.


Fighting against social exclusion means reclaiming the role of the Roma community as a historical subject fully capable of exercising their rights, as well as participating in the processes that define the ways of life and coexistence that determine their personal and social development. In this sense, formal education should be a tool to reduce and even erase inequalities, not perpetuate them. It is essential that Roma women have the possibility to promote their socialisation and provide key knowledge to transform the social environment in accordance with their needs and based on their analysis and proposals.


As we have already mentioned, school dropout and failure at school is recurrent in Roma communities and among Roma women. In general terms, the Roma population has received less formal education than the general population as a whole. This lack of participation in the formal education systems leads to serious difficulties in terms of employability, social participation, emancipation, access to housing, etc.

School failure and drop-out is not a cultural question of Roma women, it is a failure of the education system and of society as a whole, who fails to ensure the permanence of women from the largest ethnic minority in Europe and their educational success. The causes of dropout and failure are multiple, such as historical exclusion, school prohibition or segregation, lack of recognition of Roma culture in the classroom, historical suspicion of Roma women, discrimination suffered in the education system, lack of basic needs, lack of opportunities after education, etc.


[1] Data according to European Union Agency For Fundamental Rights. FRA.

[2] (poverty line in force in the respective countries) According to FRA study. Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Roma: key results. November 2016.

According to the FRA report, the most worrying aspects of the situation of the European Roma population are as follows:

  1. Discrimination. 1 out of every 2 Roma is a victim of discrimination.
  2. Living conditions. 80% are at risk of poverty compared to 17% of the EU average. 30% live in households without tap water, access to water situates them at the same level as the population of Ghana or Nepal.
  3. Youth unemployment. The percentage of young people between 16 and 24 years old, in particular women without employment, education or vocational training remains high compared to the average of the general population.
  4. Education. An average of 16% of Roma women have never attended formal education. This average increases for those over 45 years of age. Only 15% of Roma youth complete compulsory education.

This programme aims to contribute to the education and access to training of Roma adult women in Europe.

The situation is alarming, so there is an urgent need to improve their lives. According to the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)[1] 72% of Roma women aged 16-24 are neither working, studying nor training, generating pockets of poverty, precariousness, vulnerability, marginality... that need to be transformed into opportunites and equality.

The situation of Roma women in Europe is not homogeneous, although Roma communities are diverse across the continent and the different territories, so are Roma women. We must bear in mind that Roma women experience different realities depending on where they live, how their daily lives are configured, the learning they have developed in each context, the socio-economic and educational environment, etc. Therefore, the acquisition of competences cannot be carried out through identical educational strategies; each case must include the necessary nuances to adapt their acquisition to the context in which the teaching-learning process takes place.

Roma women are heterogeneous, this x-ray of the situation in Europe does not mean that all Roma women are under the same conditions, and we do not intend to promote stereotypes and prejudices about them, but it is necessary to know the general context in which the women with whom we are going to develop this programme together find themselves.  

[1] Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Roma women in nine EU Member States

Roma women to whom the programme is addressed are heterogeneous women, with a diversity of interests and motivations and with different curricular levels or vital learning. Despite this initial diversity, we find common life experiences and identities, possibly all of them with the common denominator of discrimination and lack of opportunities, regardless of social status, training or income. And in turn, possibly all of them share a motivation to learn in some way. Motivation that we will have to maintain and insist on throughout the training. 


Equality and integration of Roma according to the FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS REPORT 2020

'The year 2019 marked 10 years since the Council of the EU adopted Conclusions on the inclusion of Roma, prepared at the first meeting of the EU Platform for Roma Inclusion. The document contained 10 common basic principles on Roma inclusion. Principle 4 calls for all Roma inclusion policies to “insert the Roma in the mainstream of society (mainstream educational institutions, mainstream jobs, and mainstream housing)” and overcome “partially or entirely segregated education or housing” where it still exists. But ten years of efforts at EU, international, national and local levels appear to have resulted in little tangible change, as evidenced in FRA’s surveys and reports and the European Commission’s 2019 Report on the implementation of national Roma integration strategies. Many Roma continue to live segregated lives. They face hostility from non-Roma neighbours and mistrust local and national politics that fail to take effective steps to tackle anti-Gypsyism.'


Roma population in Spain is very heterogeneous, according to the ECRI report[1] there may be around 800,000 persons who share a strong sense of identity and a common past. A large part of the Roma population in Spain lives a situation of marginalisation and exclusion in different areas of life: education, employment, housing and health care. The Roma population of migrant origin is particularly vulnerable.

There are major deficiencies in education, high rates of school failure, drop-out and absenteeism among the most vulnerable Roma population, in marginalised neighbourhoods and ghetto schools, in general there is a lack of formal education due to the discrimination that they face on a daily basis.

The housing conditions are still poor in many areas, a significant part lives in sub-standard housing and the vast majority of the inhabitants of shanty-towns are Roma, lacking access to basic services such as electricity, water, hygiene and food, as in the rest of the European countries.

The Roma population in Spain has been present since the 15th century, and has been persecuted since their arrival through laws and pragmatic measures aimed at their assimilation and extermination.

At present, we can say that the population pyramid of the Roma communities in Spain (as in the rest of Europe) is a young population, with higher birth rates than the average population, although with a tendency to decrease.

Despite the diversity of the Roma population in Spain, inequalities persist with respect to the average population, exclusion, lack of access to housing, education, employment, etc.

For the last 12 years, the country has been receiving Roma migrants from Eastern European countries, most of whom find themselves in a situation of greater vulnerability, in substandard housing, squatted housing, unemployed, engaged in begging and scrap metal as there are no programmes or policies for them, as well as suffering from the profound rejection of society.

The Roma population is the most discriminated ethnic minority and the least accepted according to the surveys of the Spanish Centre of Sociological Research. This discrimination translates into lack of opportunities, lack of equality, lack of equal access to goods, services, employment, education, housing, etc.


Like in other countries, the exact number of Roma in France is unknown, and may vary between 20,000 and 400,000 Roma. It is possible that around 12,000 are living in camps, which the French authorities are constantly trying to ban.

The Roma population in France shares a similar history to the Roma population in Europe.

At present, there are three groups that can be differentiated according to their migratory origin or time of arrival in the country: Gitans (of origin or links to Spain), Roms (Eastern European population) and Manouches or gens du voyage (persecuted administratively, banned from parking in parking lots, unable to develop professions, impeded to register and vote...).

In the last decade, the French government's policy has led to the expulsion of the European Roma population; in 2009, more than 10,000 Roma were deported to Romania and Bulgaria. During 2010 and 2011, flights were organised to send French Roma to Romania. These deportations were accompanied by compensation of 300 euros for adults and 100 euros for minors, as well as a declaration of non-return.

The situation of the Roma population in France is similar to the Roma population in Europe: unemployment, lack of training, lack of access to goods and services, lower levels of health, and the disadvantage of the Roma population in relation to the majority population.



According to the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), there are approximately 50,000 to 60,000 Roma in Portugal[1] out of a total population of 10,295,909.

Portugal is one of the European Union countries with the highest number of Roma living in poverty, according to the report published by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, included in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2012), with an estimated 95% of the population living in marginalisation and poverty.[2]  

The report highlights that only 15% of young people have completed secondary school, less than 30% have access to paid employment and around half of the Roma population lives in households without basic resources (electricity, kitchen, bathroom, access to drinking water, etc.).  

The survey also shows that around 40% of the people interviewed are part of a family where some of its members went to bed hungry at some point due to lack of money to buy food.

There are therefore many factors of vulnerability that characterise Roma communities in Portugal. All these data are approximations based on surveys. As in other EU countries, segregation is not allowed in the collection and breakdown of data by ethnicity, race, etc. So the data gives an approximate information of the situation. Since there is no quantitative data, it just gives us a glimpse of a population with specific characteristics, or part of a population with specific situations because they are Roma.

The first historical reference to Roma communities in Portugal dates back to the 15th century. Nowadays they are mainly concentrated in the coast, near the border and in Lisbon.

The Roma community is one of the most vulnerable groups suffering poverty and exclusion. Also subject to multiple prejudices and stereotypes.

Their situation in general terms implies poor living conditions, housing, training, basic access to goods and services, health, employment and education, where poverty is inherited from generation to generation.

With regard to education, there is a high rate of failure and abandonment. Hence the need to specifically address the education of the population in general and of adult Roma women in particular, so that they can reach a similar academic and training level to that of the general population. Formal education and the education system sometimes perpetuate social reproduction, making social mobility almost impossible generation after generation. In the school environment, discriminatory and racist practices towards the Roma population are reproduced, favouring the perception of school as a hostile space and making it difficult for them to cotinue.

This educational situation has an impact on access to employment (lack of opportunities, work niches, discrimination by co-workers and employers), access to decent housing, basic services, segregated neighbourhoods, settlements, etc.

The Portuguese Constitution incorporates the principle of equality in Article 13: Principle of equality

  1. All citizens shall have the same social dignity and shall be equal before the law. - General guarantee of equality
  2. No one shall be privileged, benefited, disadvantaged, deprived of any right or exempted from any duty on grounds of descent, sex, race, language, territory of origin, religion, political or ideological conviction, education, property, social circumstances or sexual orientation.

Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin establishes a framework for combating discrimination on grounds of race or ethnic origin with a view to putting into effect the principle of equal treatment.

Article 240. Racial discrimination is criminalised in the Portuguese Penal Code.

[1] Informe sobre Portugal, Comisión Europea contra el Racismos y la Intolerancia, adoptado el 20 de marzo de 2002, Estrasburgo, 4 de noviembre de 2002



As in the other countries and in Europe as a whole, the Roma population in Romania has been subjected to persecution, forced assimilation, extermination, discrimination, indifference and slavery throughout its history. In 1862, the last group of enslaved Roma was put up for sale.

The Council of Europe estimates that approximately 1.85 million Roma live in Romania (8.32% of the population).

The official population census of Romania, which includes the ethnicity of the Romanian population, declares 3.2% of the total Romanian population to be Roma. There are estimates that it is around 10%, which means that there is a high number of Roma people who do not define themselves as such in order to avoid the consequences that this entails in racist societies.

As a World Bank study indicates, the Roma population has serious economic problems (9 out of 10). The schooling situation is precarious compared to the majority population and 1/3 of Roma job seekers have faced discrimination.

According to STRATEGY OF THE GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA FOR THE INCLUSION OF THE ROMANIAN CITIZENS BELONGING TO ROMA MINORITY (2012-2020) the Roma population has higher unemployment rates compared to the total population (48% compared to 7%), as well as much higher part-time employment rates compared to the total population (65% compared to 10%), data that place the Roma population at a great disadvantage and impoverishment. In terms of employment and participation in the formal labour market, it should be noted that the Roma population in Romania generally has a lower level of education compared to the majority population, which limits their access to the labour market. Unemployment rates are three times higher than those of the general population.

These disadvantages also occur in the field of education: illiteracy affects more than 30% of adult Roma, and there is still no full schooling or completion of basic education.

According to the National Strategy for Roma Inclusion in Romania, maternal mortality among Roma patients is 15 times higher than the national average. The risk of infant mortality is 4 times higher than in the general population and their access to vaccination is lower.

Programme objectives

The main objective of this Educational Programme responds to the need to expand access to learning opportunities for Roma women.

The objective is to be able to facilitate the incorporation of Roma women to adult education. All the entities which are part of the project agree that training and education are important for Roma women, but this does not mean that only formal studies, qualifications and meritocracy should be the only system of knowledge, experience and wisdom that is recognised.

Motivate them to return to education and formal educational spaces.

To widen access to training opportunities for Roma women who lack basic skills or have little or no qualifications.

This is why we believe that in order to be able to access adult education, it is more necessary to work on competences related to Roma identity, self-knowledge and recognition as a community, as People. Work on capacities to exercise citizenship, to provide Roma women the tools to claim their rights and improve their situation of discrimination and training.

This Educational Programme is designed for all the Roma women who experience multiple levels of exclusion. For us, it is unacceptable that Roma women cannot have equal access to the social, cultural, educational, employment, legal and health resources to which they are entitled as European citizens. The living conditions of Roma communities in Europe can sometimes be compared to those of populations in impoverished countries (substandard housing; overcrowding; persecution; lack of resources, drinking water, electricity, and communications; over-representation in prisons, digital divide, political representation, representation in Roma associations, etc.).

School “failure” and/or early dropout of Roma women from formal education is not only due to internal factors related to their communities, it is the failure of society as a whole, who abandons them and does not attend the specific needs of minorities. The situation of dropout and absenteeism is not improving and no policies or models have reversed the situation. The education system and policies aimed at improving the situation of Roma in education have not improved. The expected results in terms of success, labour market insertion and institutional representation continue to fail. School success goes hand in hand with labour normalisation and rights. All the "school success" stories of Roma people have as a common denominator the experience of non-discrimination during their education. Respect and inclusion as a guarantee of rights is part of success and continuity in education. Experiences of discrimination deeply affect school success. Therefore, education and the return to education of Roma women is also an exercise in citizenship.

This Educational Programme is born from the need to create material to support Roma women in the defence of their rights, knowledge of their history, the fight against patriarchy, their rights as women (rights to our bodies, our sexuality, greater participation in community and political life), and empowerment. We fight against patriarchy -both from within and from outside the community- which oppresses all women.

The Educational Programme is aimed both at teachers and Roma women, and can be used jointly and guided by teachers or autonomously by Roma women. Our aim with this material is to:  

  • Transform the system and combat stereotypes
  • To promote learning about Roma history and culture. 

  • To promote positive attitudes towards the Roma community.

  • To become aware of their rights as citizens.

  • To encourage debate and develop Roma feminism. 

  • To raise awareness and train teachers who work with Roma women.
  • Motivate Roma women to use and exercise their rights. 

Adult education and training in Europe aim to widen access to learning opportunities. 

Among the specific objectives of Adult Education and Training, the following stand out:

  • acquire basic training, increase and refresh adults’ knowledge, abilities and skills on a permanent basis, and facilitate access to the different types of provision within the education system. 
  • improve their professional qualification or acquire the necessary training for the practice of other professions. 
  • respond adequately to the challenges related to the gradual ageing of the population, ensuring older people the opportunity to increase and update their skills. 
  • foster real equality of rights and opportunities between men and women 
  • acquire, increase, and renew the knowledge, abilities, and skills required in order to create companies and carry out business activities and initiatives 

Erasmus Plus Programme Regulations


This project seeks to promote the full inclusion of these adult Roma women by reintegrating them into the education system, generating their interest in learning and collaborating in the construction of a new society fair, egalitarian and without racism. From this perspective, we consider that inclusion implies that people are incorporated into society through school, given that school education is a factor of social inclusion.

Specifically we are pursuing: 

  • To provide uneducated Roma women over the age of 18 who have failed at school with the tools, knowledge and skills to successfully reincorporate them into education and achieve greater social inclusion
  • Improve and expand the provision of high quality learning opportunities that are tailored to the individual needs of Roma learners aged 18+ with low skills or qualifications to acquire literacy, numeracy and digital competence skills, including through the validation of skills gained through informal and non-formal learning; 

To increase demand and participation through effective outreach, orientation and motivation strategies that encourage adult Roma women to develop their competences for inclusion; 


These objectives are in line with the objectives set out in the ERASMUS PLUS 2018 PROGRAMME GUIDE and specifically with the priorities: 

  • IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE SUPPLY OF HIGH-QUALITY LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES tailored to the needs of the ROMA community, especially Roma women who suffer from multiple levels of exclusion. As well as orienting towards literacy and improving their reading and digital skills, while developing self-confidence, empowerment, study habits and citizenship awareness of Roma adults with early school leaving, low qualifications or certifications. The aim is to achieve key progress towards higher qualifications through the validation of skills acquired through informal and non-formal learning.

  • EXTENDING AND DEVELOPING EDUCATORS' COMPETENCES, particularly in the effective teaching of literacy, numeracy and digital skills to low-skilled or low-qualified adults, including through the effective use of ICT;


  • PROMOTE SOCIAL INCLUSION. Through specific outcomes for the Roma community in the field of adult women's education, the aim is to address diversity and to promote through integrated and innovative approaches, the appropriation of shared values, equality, including gender equality, non-discrimination and social inclusion.

Adult Education Regulations

The objectives and principles of adult education are set out in the Law ECD/651/2017, of 5 July.

The objectives and principles of adult education are set out in Chapter IX of Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May, on Education:

1. The aim of adult education is to offer all those over eighteen years of age the possibility of acquiring, updating, completing or extending their knowledge and skills for their personal and professional development.

2. In order to achieve the proposed aim, the educational administrations may collaborate with other public administrations with competences in adult education and, in particular, with the labour administration, as well as with local corporations and the various social agents.

3. Adult education shall include the following objectives:

a) To acquire basic training, to broaden and renew their knowledge, skills and abilities in order to maintain and facilitate access to the different teachings of the educational system.

b) To improve their professional qualification or to acquire a preparation for the exercise of other professions.

c) To develop their personal abilities, in the expressive, communicative, interpersonal and knowledge-building fields.

d) To develop their capacity to participate in social, cultural, political and economic life and to exercise their right to democratic citizenship.

e) To develop programmes that reverse the risks of social exclusion, especially for the most disadvantaged sectors.

f) Respond adequately to the challenges posed by the progressive ageing of the population by ensuring that older people have the opportunity to increase and update their skills.

g) To prevent and resolve personal, family and social conflicts peacefully. To promote effective equality of rights and opportunities between men and women, as well as to analyse and critically assess inequalities between them.

4. Adults can learn both through formal and non-formal educational activities and through experience, work or social activities, and therefore connections will be established between both and measures will be adopted for the validation of the learning acquired.

Education system in Spain


The key competences in the Spanish Education System are listed and described in Law ECD/65/2015, of 21 January, which describes the competences, contents and assessment criteria for primary education, compulsory secondary education and baccalaureate.

Education system in Portugal


The key competences in the Portuguese Education System are set out in Decree Law 6/2001 and in the regulations Regulatory Dispatch n. º 5908/2017.

Education system in Romania


Key competences in the Romanian Education System are listed in POSDRU 55/1.1/S/41523 ID 41523 - Obiectivul general al proiectului.

The main legislative texts regulating the system of Adult Education (AE) in Romania are:

National Education Law no. 1/2011, and its successive amendments and additions.

Governmental Decree No. 129/2000 on Vocational Training for Adults, republished in the Official Gazette, Part I No. 110 of 13 February 2014; by NCA decision No. 57/03.03.2014 the regulation on Vocational Education and Labour Training was approved. Specialists will be able to identify the specific activities of a job, as well as the skills necessary to exercise it at a minimum acceptable level on the labour market, considering the main functions and responsibilities specific to a job, described in the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), in the Romanian Classification of Occupations (COR) and in the European Classification of Skills/Competences, Qualifications and Occupations (ESCO).

Legislative texts subsequent to DG 129/2000 (on implementation rules, methodologies, procedures, classifications and specific lists), which regulate: criteria and procedures for quality assurance of adult education training programmes.

Competence-based vocational training, assessment and certification;

Assessment and recognition of competences acquired in non-formal and informal educational contexts.

Labour Code (newly published Law no. 53/2003 and its successive amendments and additions) has specific provisions regarding vocational training in companies and encourages the obligation of companies to provide vocational training to staff every two years (or every three years for companies with a small number of employees); Law no. 76/2002 on insurance systems for unemployment and employment promotion and its successive amendments and additions; Government Decision no. 918/2013 on the approval of the National Qualifications Framework.

Other legislative texts concerning vocational training regulated at sectoral level. These regulations may concern the content of training, the conditions of access to training, providing training, evaluation and certification of training results. Through Adult Education Training legislation in Romania, the main European principles concerning transparency of qualifications and recognition of competences and qualifications have been implemented, regardless of the learning context.

Education system in France


The common basis of knowledge, skills and culture in the French Education System is set out in Decree n ° 2015-372 of 31 March 2015.

Basic and educational competences


This Educational Programme aims to foster the development of social, civic and intercultural competences, critical thinking, and to fight against the discrimination, segregation and racism suffered by Roma women.

This programme is focused on adult Roma women. The European Union guidelines indicate the need to acquire key competences as a necessary requirement to achieve a full personal, social and professional development that meets the demands of today's reality as citizens.

All individuals need key competences for lifelong learning for their personal fulfilment and development, as well as for active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Key competences are therefore relevant to all sectors of education and training (schools, vocational education and training, higher education, adult learning) and to non-formal and informal learning, which is what concerns us here and which we intend to reinforce in the process of adult Roma women acquiring competences in the European framework. The key competences that we intend to address here focus on non-formal educational settings for adults in order to motivate and ease the way back to education for those adult Roma women who dropped out or did not have full access to an educational itinerary. 

The OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in the DeSeCo Project (Project for the Definition and Selection of Competences, 2003) defined competence as "the ability to respond to complex demands and to carry out diverse tasks appropriately". Competence "involves a combination of practical skills, knowledge, motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioural components that are mobilised together to achieve effective action". They are thus seen as knowledge through practice, i.e., knowledge acquired through active participation in social practices and, as such, can be developed both in formal educational contexts, through the curriculum, and in non-formal and informal contexts.

Competences are therefore conceptualised as "know-how" that is applied to a variety of academic, social and professional contexts. To transfer this know-how to different contexts, it is essential to understand the knowledge present in the competences, and its connection with the practical skills or abilities that it includes.

Competence-based learning is characterised by its comprehensive and transversal nature as well as its dynamism. Therefore, a competence-based teaching-learning process must be approached from all areas of knowledge and by the whole educational community, in both formal, non-formal and informal settings. Its dynamism is reflected in the fact that competences, are not acquired and then remain unaltered, but they entail a development process through which individuals gradually acquire higher levels of performance through their use.

In addition, this learning experience provides a comprehensive education for those who, by the end of the academic period, will need to be able to transfer their acquired knowledge to the new instances that will appear in their chosen life option. In this way, they will be able to reorganise their thoughts and acquire new knowledge, improve their performance, and discover new forms of action and new skills that will enable them to efficiently carry out tasks, thus favouring lifelong learning.

The European Union has contributed to the definition of key competences in education. In its Lifelong Learning Programme (2006), the EU adopted a framework of key competences. Out of the eight competences defined in the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning, in this guide we will work on the following competences throughout seven didactic units:

1. Communication in the Mother Tongue

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence.

Communicative competence results from the acquisition of the mother tongue, which is intrinsically linked to the development of an individual's cognitive ability to interpret the world and relate to others. Communication in the mother tongue requires an individual to have knowledge of vocabulary, functional grammar and the functions of language. It includes an awareness of the main types of verbal interaction, a range of literary and non-literary texts, the main features of different styles and registers of language, and the variability of language and communication in different contexts.

Individuals should have the skills to communicate both orally and in writing in a variety of communicative situations and to monitor and adapt their own communication to the requirements of the situation. This competence also includes the abilities to distinguish and use different types of texts, to search for, collect and process information, to use aids, and to formulate and express one's oral and written arguments in a convincing way appropriate to the context.

A positive attitude towards communication in the mother tongue involves a disposition to critical and constructive dialogue, an appreciation of aesthetic qualities and a willingness to strive for them, and an interest in interaction with others. This implies an awareness of the impact of language on others and a need to understand and use language in a positive and socially responsible manner.

Furthermore, in the context of the mother tongue, Romani for Roma women implies a recognition of their own language, one which is not studied in any formal educational setting. For those Roma women who were deprived of their language as a means of forced assimilation, it signifies acknowledging an identity-based knowledge which has been forbidden and persecuted for centuries. Attending an educational setting where their mother tongue is recognised, studied, and valued can imply a change in Roma women’s perspective and appreciation in terms of their relationship with education. It also encourages and favours teachers' understanding of the rights which were taken away from those Roma people whose mother tongue is Romani, also during their education. Through the linguistic literacy unit, they can access texts and poems in their mother tongue and work in an educational space and environment on the use of their language of communication which until now has not been valued or treated as a tool for educational inclusion and cultural recognition. Contributing and valuing the language employed, gives status to the students.

2. Communication in Foreign Languages

Communication in foreign languages broadly shares the main skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue: it is based on the ability to understand, express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in an appropriate range of societal and cultural contexts (in education and training, work, home and leisure) according to one's wants or needs. Communication in foreign languages also calls for skills such as mediation and intercultural understanding. An individual's level of proficiency will vary between the four dimensions (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and between the different languages, and according to that individual's social and cultural background, environment, needs and/or interests.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence:

Competence in foreign languages requires knowledge of vocabulary and functional grammar and an awareness of the main types of verbal interaction and registers of language. Knowledge of societal conventions, and the cultural aspect and variability of languages is important.

Essential skills for communication in foreign languages consist of the ability to understand spoken messages, to initiate, sustain and conclude conversations and to read, understand and produce texts appropriate to the individual's needs. Individuals should also be able to use aids appropriately and learn languages also informally as part of lifelong learning.

A positive attitude involves the appreciation of cultural diversity, and an interest and curiosity in languages and intercultural communication.

For those adult Roma women whose mother tongue is not Romani, as its use was legislated and forbidden under penalties of imprisonment and mutilation, it means bringing them closer to, and learning about the history and culture which they have been deprived of and denied. This initial contact also generates identity and a common destiny with their own people. It provides the ability of recognition amongst themselves and to communicate using basic language. Recognising similarities between their own everyday words of Caló origin and Romani.

We will also work on this competence throughout the didactic unit on linguistic literacy, through exercises and poems where they will be able to recognise and get to know the language and its use.

3. Digital Competence

Digital competence involves the confident and critical use of Information Society Technology (IST) for work, leisure and communication. It is underpinned by basic skills in ICT: the use of computers to retrieve, assess, store, produce, present and exchange information, and to communicate and participate in collaborative networks via the Internet.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence:

Digital competence requires a sound understanding and knowledge of the nature, role and opportunities of IST in everyday contexts: in personal and social life as well as at work. This includes main computer applications such as word processing, spreadsheets, databases, information storage and management, and an understanding of the opportunities and potential risks of the Internet and communication via electronic media (e-mail, network tools) for work, leisure, information sharing and collaborative networking, learning and research. Individuals should also understand how IST can support creativity and innovation, and be aware of issues around the validity and reliability of information available and of the legal and ethical principles involved in the interactive use of IST.

Skills needed include the ability to search, collect and process information and use it in a critical and systematic way, assessing relevance and distinguishing the real from the virtual while recognising the links. Individuals should have skills to use tools to produce, present and understand complex information and the ability to access, search and use internet-based services. Individuals should also be able use IST to support critical thinking, creativity, and innovation.

Use of IST requires a critical and reflective attitude towards available information and a responsible use of the interactive media. An interest in engaging in communities and networks for cultural, social and/or professional purposes also supports this competence.

The competences we aim to develop will be worked on throughout the entire course and materials. As it is a basic competence which is needed in today’s world, the syllabus has been thought so that it can be implemented using the new information technologies. That is why we initiate with the unit Digital Competence, to build on and improve skills throughout the course.

4. Learning to Learn

‘Learning to learn’ is the ability to pursue and persist in learning, to organise one's own learning, including through effective management of time and information, both individually and in groups. This competence includes awareness of one's learning process and needs, identifying available opportunities, and the ability to overcome obstacles in order to learn successfully. This competence means gaining, processing and assimilating new knowledge and skills as well as seeking and making use of guidance. Learning to learn engages learners to build on prior learning and life experiences in order to use and apply knowledge and skills in a variety of contexts: at home, at work, in education and training. Motivation and confidence are crucial to an individual's competence.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence:

Where learning is directed towards particular work or career goals, an individual should have knowledge of the competences, knowledge, skills and qualifications required. In all cases, learning to learn requires an individual to know and understand his/her preferred learning strategies, the strengths and weaknesses of his/her skills and qualifications, and to be able to search for the education and training opportunities and guidance and/or support available.

Learning to learn skills require firstly the acquisition of the fundamental basic skills such as literacy, numeracy and ICT skills that are necessary for further learning. Building on these skills, an individual should be able to access, gain, process and assimilate new knowledge and skills. This requires effective management of one's learning, career and work patterns, and, in particular, the ability to persevere with learning, to concentrate for extended periods and to reflect critically on the purposes and aims of learning. Individuals should be able to dedicate time to learning autonomously and with self-discipline, but also to work collaboratively as part of the learning process, draw the benefits from a heterogeneous group, and to share what they have learnt. Individuals should be able to organise their own learning, evaluate their own work, and to seek advice, information and support when appropriate.

A positive attitude includes the motivation and confidence to pursue and succeed at learning throughout one's life. A problem-solving attitude supports both the learning process itself and an individual's ability to handle obstacles and change. The desire to apply prior learning and life experiences and the curiosity to look for opportunities to learn and apply learning in a variety of life contexts are essential elements of a positive attitude.

A positive attitude includes the motivation and confidence to pursue and succeed at learning throughout one's life. A problem-solving attitude supports both the learning process itself and an individual's ability to handle obstacles and change. The desire to apply prior learning and life experiences and the curiosity to look for opportunities to learn and apply learning in a variety of life contexts are essential elements of a positive attitude.

A positive attitude includes the motivation and confidence to pursue and succeed at learning throughout one's life. A problem-solving attitude supports both the learning process itself and an individual's ability to handle obstacles and change. The desire to apply prior learning and life experiences and the curiosity to look for opportunities to learn and apply learning in a variety of life contexts are essential elements of a positive attitude.

5. Social and Civic Competences

Social and civic competence aims to develop the following skills and knowledge:

Understand the codes of conduct in different societies and environments

Understand the concepts of equality, non-discrimination between women and men, different ethnic or cultural groups, society and culture

Understand the intercultural and socio-economic dimensions of European societies

Understand the concepts of democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and human rights

Communicate in a constructive way in different environments and demonstrate tolerance

Display solidarity and interest in solving problems

Constructive participation in community activities

Decision making in local, national, or European contexts through voting

Develop an interest in socio-economic development and in its contribution to greater social welfare

Be willing to overcome prejudices and respect differences

Take part in democratic decision-making at all levels

These include personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and cover all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life, and particularly in increasingly diverse societies, and to resolve conflict where necessary. Civic competence equips individuals to fully participate in civic life, based on knowledge of social and political concepts and structures and a commitment to active and democratic participation.

Social competence is linked to personal and social well-being which requires an understanding of how individuals can ensure optimum physical and mental health, including as a resource for oneself and one's family and one's immediate social environment, and knowledge of how a healthy lifestyle can contribute to this. For successful interpersonal and social participation, it is essential to understand the codes of conduct and manners generally accepted in different societies and environments (e.g. at work). It is equally important to be aware of basic concepts relating to individuals, groups, work organisations, gender equality and non-discrimination, society and culture. Understanding the multi-cultural and socio-economic dimensions of European societies and how national cultural identity interacts with the European identity is essential.

The core skills of this competence include the ability to communicate constructively in different environments, to show tolerance, express and understand different viewpoints, to negotiate with the ability to create confidence, and to feel empathy. Individuals should be capable of coping with stress and frustration and expressing them in a constructive way and should also distinguish between the personal and professional spheres.

The competence is based on an attitude of collaboration, assertiveness and integrity. Individuals should have an interest in socio-economic developments and intercultural communication and should value diversity and respect others, and be prepared both to overcome prejudices and to compromise.

Civic competence is based on knowledge of the concepts of democracy, justice, equality, citizenship, and civil rights, including how they are expressed in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and international declarations and how they are applied by various institutions at the local, regional, national, European and international levels. It includes knowledge of contemporary events, as well as the main events and trends in national, European and world history. In addition, an awareness of the aims, values and policies of social and political movements should be developed. Knowledge of European integration and of the EU's structures, main objectives and values is also essential, as well as an awareness of diversity and cultural identities in Europe.

Skills for civic competence relate to the ability to engage effectively with others in the public domain, and to display solidarity and interest in solving problems affecting the local and wider community. This involves critical and creative reflection and constructive participation in community or neighbourhood activities as well as decision-making at all levels, from local to national and European level, in particular through voting.

Full respect for human rights including equality as a basis for democracy, appreciation and understanding of differences between value systems of different religious or ethnic groups lay the foundations for a positive attitude. This means displaying both a sense of belonging to one's locality, country, the EU and Europe in general and to the world, and a willingness to participate in democratic decision-making at all levels. It also includes demonstrating a sense of responsibility, as well as showing understanding of and respect for the shared values that are necessary to ensure community cohesion, such as respect for democratic principles. Constructive participation also involves civic activities, support for social diversity and cohesion and sustainable development, and a readiness to respect the values and privacy of others.

This competence will be worked on through several of the proposed units, both formal and informal. Culture and Inclusion; Self-confidence and Leadership; Digital Literacy; Romani Literature for Linguistic Literacy; Societies, Territories and Historical Processes; Rights, the World of Work and Labour Rights; Social, Civic, Intercultural Development. Romani Feminism;

6. Cultural Awareness and Expression

Cultural awareness and expression is defined as the appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media, including music, performing arts, literature, and the visual arts.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence:

Cultural knowledge includes an awareness of local, national and European cultural heritage and their place in the world. It covers a basic knowledge of major cultural works, including popular contemporary culture. It is essential to understand the cultural and linguistic diversity in Europe and other regions of the world, the need to preserve it and the importance of aesthetic factors in daily life.

Skills relate to both appreciation and expression: the appreciation and enjoyment of works of art and performances as well as self-expression through a variety of media using one' s innate capacities. Skills include also the ability to relate one's own creative and expressive points of view to the opinions of others and to identify and realise social and economic opportunities in cultural activity. Cultural expression is essential to the development of creative skills, which can be transferred to a variety of professional contexts.

A solid understanding of one's own culture and a sense of identity can be the basis for an open attitude towards and respect for diversity of cultural expression. A positive attitude also covers creativity, and the willingness to cultivate aesthetic capacity through artistic self-expression and participation in cultural life.

Our aim is that by working on this competence in a cross-cutting manner, the Roma women who participate in this educational programme will find their own cultural contribution to European culture and cultural expression is acknowledged.

As with other competences, cultural awareness and expression will be developed through different formal and non-formal units. Linguistic Literacy; Societies, Territories and Historical Processes, Social, Civic, Intercultural Development. Romani Feminism.

It also develops an awareness of the recognition and diversity of cultural expressions, as wealth and heritage.

This Educational Programme is composed of 7 didactic units through which the following formal and non-formal educational competences will be developed.

Non-formal Basic and Educational Competences

In this Educational Programme, the following non-formal competences are developed through the proposed didactic units.

Interpersonal, Intercultural and Social Competences and Civic Competence. Social and civic competence refers to personal, interpersonal and intercultural competences and cover all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life. This competence corresponds to personal and collective well-being. Understanding the codes of conduct and customs of the different environments in which the individual develops is essential. A civic, active, and democratic participation of an individual is ensured thanks to these civic competences, especially through knowledge of social and political notions and structures (democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and civil rights).

Competencias interpersonales, interculturales y sociales y competencia cívica. La competencia social y cívica remite a las competencias personales, interpersonales e interculturales, así como a todas las formas de comportamiento para participar de manera eficaz y constructiva en la vida social y profesional. Esta competencia se corresponde con el bienestar personal y colectivo. La comprensión de los códigos de conducta y de las costumbres de los distintos entornos en los que el individuo se desarrolla es fundamental. Un individuo puede asegurarse una participación cívica, activa y democrática gracias a estas competencias cívicas, especialmente a través del conocimiento de las nociones y las estructuras sociales y políticas (democracia, justicia, igualdad, ciudadanía y derechos civiles).

Cultural Expression. Implies knowing, understanding, appreciating and valuing with a critical spirit and an open and respectful attitude, the different cultural and artistic manifestations, using them as a source of personal enrichment and enjoyment and considering them as part of the wealth and heritage of the peoples.

Entrepreneurship. Understanding how societies, trade unions and business organisations work. Knowing the opportunities that are available for personal, professional and commercial activities. Analytical capabilities, adapting to change, communication skills, self-awareness and self-esteem, initiative, interest, proactivity etc.

Communication in the Mother Tongue and Communication in Foreign Languages. Knowing the diversity of language and communication depending on the context. Knowing the main characteristics, styles and registers of language. Vocabulary. Grammar. To express oneself in spoken language in different communicative situations, understand various texts, express oneself in writing, be open to critical and constructive interaction, recognise dialogue as an essential tool for coexistence, and be interested in interacting with others.

Learning to Learn This refers to lifelong learning, i.e., to the ability to continue learning effectively and independently after the educational stage. Besides controlling one's own skills, knowledge and being properly motivated, this implies knowing how to appropriately use study strategies and techniques.

Personal Autonomy and Initiative. Responsibility, perseverance, self-esteem, creativity, self-criticism and personal control are some of the skills associated with this competence. These skills allow learners to apply a strategic vision of the challenges and opportunities they have to face throughout their lives and facilitate decision-making.


An appropriate methodology is essential to carry out the programme presented here. It should be active, participative and varied in order to give the class a good rhythm and facilitate the teaching and learning process. The participation of the students is the fundamental axis of the learning model.

The aim is that each student initiates a learning process in which she is the one who guides her own steps. They will be able to organise their training according to their objectives and needs, in such a way that they will develop skills in an active way and in accordance to their own principles.

The organisation and methodology of adult learning should be based on self-learning and should take into account the students’ experiences, needs and interests, and can be developed through face-to-face learning as well as distance learning.

We propose an open, flexible training, adaptable to the needs of each student or group of students, to their time and their learning pace.

  1. The methodology of these courses will be flexible, open and inclusive, based on self-learning and taking into account the students’ experiences, so that it responds to their abilities, interests and needs, with special attention to the specific needs of educational support.
  2. The methodology will aim to promote the acquisition, consolidation and development of the key competences of lifelong learning by means of meaningful learning processes: working with projects connected to their daily experiences as adults and based on the cultural background that each student brings to her learning activity.
  3. The proposed tasks will facilitate self-learning and the development of autonomy and personal initiative and will be adapted to the students' previous experiences, so that they respond to their abilities, interests and needs. 
  4. The approach of the activities should take into account the social component of the learning process and contribute to the development of communication and cooperation skills. 
  5. The teaching process will be designed to provide pupils with the basic instrumental learning to be able to have some guarantee of success in their current and future educational pathway. 
  6. The curricular design of the area will integrate knowledge in a globalised way and not as a mere accumulation of educational units.

A Methodology based on Participation

The methodology we are going to use throughout the course is based on the participation of the students in their own teaching and learning process. For this purpose:

a) We will use the students' previous ideas as a starting point.

b) We will use different sources of information, putting forward hypotheses about the topics we work on.

c) We will generate contexts where reflection and debate are possible using sources of information and reasoned propositions.

In short, having considered the objectives, contents and educational resources, we will work with a varied, active, participative methodology inserted in what has been called meaningful learning.

Theoretical explanations will alternate with specific practical activities in which the students are involved and collaborate in the construction of their own learning.

Awakening the curiosity and maintaining the interest of the students is a continuous challenge for the teacher, that is why it is important to select activities that are motivating and help to capture their attention, both at the beginning of a subject or class and during its development. When selecting activities, two basic principles should be taken into account: inclusion of activities to understand concepts and models, and activities to learn to solve a problem or carry out an investigation.

Type of Activities

Several types of activities will be carried out:

  1. Initial activities: aimed at motivating the students and getting them to make their previous ideas explicit. To be able to express and expose in their own words the ideas and previous knowledge of the proposed topics
  2. Development activities, in which we will work on procedures which are specific to our subject, such as analysis of films on topics of interest, practical exercises related to defending and exercising of rights, creation and expression in their mother tongue, reading activities, observation, debate and exhibition activities, in order to acquire critical and reflective skills
  3. Activities to test and assimilate knowledge, including: presentation of research, synthesis activities, sharing and exchanging learning experiences with the teachers
  4. Reinforcement activities: we will make continuous revision by means of sharing, the methodology
  5. Activities outside the classroom: observation, analysis, reading and writing activities can be carried out outside the classroom or group space.

Teaching Strategies

The learning-teaching method should be oriented towards discussion and/or teamwork, we understand that sharing, cooperative learning, helps to broaden the students' knowledge. This interactive approach in which students are responsible for their own learning and that of their classmates is a strategy of co-responsibility to achieve group goals and incentives. Developing active and meaningful learning in a cooperative way.

The teaching-learning method, problem-based learning (PBL): the starting point is a problem designed by the teachers, the students in working groups will have to approach in an orderly and coordinated way the different phases that involve the resolution or development around the problem or situation. Active learning is developed through problem solving.

Learning through the virtual classroom. Teaching through the computer with a connection to the network as a communication system between teachers and students

Through individual tutorials, personalised attention, project-based learning and learning contracts

Group learning and peer learning. Cooperative learning and problem-based learning (PBL)

The methodology will be mainly face-to-face, but non-face-to-face is also possible as the materials, links and activities are available online

The materials we propose are designed to motivate the educational processes of adult women, that is why there are educational units that can start from their own interests in order to motivate women to start or continue in these educational processes


The educational units that are developed in this programme and that we consider necessary to improve the situation and motivate Roma women are the following:

  1. Culture and Inclusion
  2. Ethnic Pride and Leadership
  3. Digital Literacy
  4. Romani Literature for Linguistic Literacy
  5. Societies, Territories and Historical Processes
  6. Rights, World of Work and Labour Rights
  7. Social, Civic, Intercultural Development. Roma Feminism

In order to work on all these competences and the development of the units we can establish a classroom plan. This consists in planning how the sessions will be developed, but it is always necessary -especially in this type of course- to have the capacity to change the plan and be flexible, depending on the needs that may appear. The figure of the trainer, the teacher, is that of a catalyst of knowledge, who helps to share accumulated knowledge, also transmitting as much knowledge as possible. The classroom plan will help to organise the content of the different sessions, always taking into account the previous knowledge of the students (as they are adult women) their focus of interest and their participation. A basic guide from which to start.

It is important to have a classroom plan in order to have the necessary resources, material and tools available. It is necessary to know beforehand the contents, the objectives, to use appropriate methodology for each group (not all groups will be the same, nor are they based on the same knowledge, so we must adapt our methodology). The timing must also be planned and agreed with the group, involving them in the decisions and time they dedicate to their training.

The classroom plan must also consider how we will place ourselves with the students. If we intend to use a participative, peer-to-peer, collaborative methodology, we will arrange the learning situation mainly in a circle, placing the teacher's chair in the same position, as a facilitator of the knowledge process on an equal basis as the students. For the work in groups and pairs, the circle model is maintained, keeping the distance to be able to have conversations and develop the work.

Teaching Units

Non-formal Teaching Units

We begin the units of this educational program with the non-formal contents, since we consider that it is necessary to work on certain aspects related to the experience of being a Roma woman in order to be able to approach the formal contents later on. These non-formal units will help to build a relationship of trust among the group and with the teachers. 

We consider culture and inclusion, empowerment and self-confidence fundamental elements of non-formal education to strengthen knowledge and subsequent training in non-formal contents. These topics can be an exercise of introspection and analysis of the Roma women who start the training, helping to build their self-confidence, empowerment and social analysis of what it can mean to be a Roma woman in a context of prejudice, stereotyping and antigypsyism.

We believe that by identifying in the classroom these basic and essential elements for Roma women, and working on dignity, recognition and belief in themselves and in the group, it will favor their learning and continuity in training.


Culture and Inclusion


Ethnic Pride and Leadership

Formal Teaching Units


Digital Literacy


Romani Literature for Linguistic Literacy


Societies, Territories and Historical Processes


World of Work. Rights, Advocacy, Human Rights and Labour Rights


Social, Civic, Intercultural Development. Roma Feminism